Syllabus (Research Methodology)


Total Lecture: 100 Hrs

Exam time: 2 Hrs.                                                                      

 Total marks: 100

                                                                                                               Written: 50

                                                                                                       Course Work: 30

                                                                                                               Sessional: 20

  1. The role of research and the relationship between research, theory and physiotherapy practice.
  2. The scope and applications of research.
  3. The process of research.
  4. Ethical considerations in human research.
  5. Quantitative research.
  6. The survey, descriptive and analytical.
  7. Prospective longitudinal and retrospective cross-section designs.
  8. The logic and structure of experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs.
  9. Aims, objectives and hypotheses. Independent and dependent variables. Null and alternative hypotheses.
  10. Principles of sampling, universes, populations and samples.
  11. Sampling strategies, probability and purposive sampling, random and stratified random sampling and quota sampling.
  12. Calculating sample size. Response rates and drop-out.
  13. External and internal validity.
  14. Principles of data collection – validity, sensitivity and reliability.
  15. Sources of bias and their reduction.
  16. Selection of measurement instruments. Types of data (nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio). Operational definitions, interventions and outcome measurement.
  17. Descriptive statistics, measures of dispersion and central tendency. The normal distribution and standard deviation. Basic display techniques (e.g. line charts, histograms, bar charts). Choosing graphical forms.
  18. Introduction to statistical inference; probability, p values. One and two-tailed hypothesis testing.
  19. Inferential statistics, statistical tests, principals of test selection.
  20. Tests for difference and tests for association. Related and unrelated, parametric and non-parametric.
  21. Errors of inference: Type Type II errors and I.
  22. Inputting data and generating and interpreting output from the computer.
  23. Performing selected statistical tests on the computer with appropriate software.
  24. Statistical, social and clinical significance.
  25. Critical appraisal of quantitative research reports.
  26. Generating “researchable” and relevant questions and identifying appropriate designs.
  27. Constraints on the choice of design. Designing and planning experimental designs.
  28. Qualitative research.
  29. Survey research: questionnaires and interviews.  Principles of questionnaire design.
  30. Structured Vs unstructured interviews.
  31. Designing questionnaires and interview schedules.
  32. Organising and running focus groups.
  33. The Delphi technique.
  34. Other data collection instruments (e.g. diaries and other documentary sources).
  35. Ethnographic research. Gathering observation data, covert and overt, participant and non-participant.  Constructing field notes. Gaining trust and rapport in ethnographic research.
  36. The design and analysis of single-system studies. Case studies.
  37. Basic principles of qualitative data analysis: identifying concepts, categories and themes from data.
  38. Qualitative data analysis, organising narrative data, content analysis.  Identifying relationships.  Maps and matrices.
  39. Computerised analysis of qualitative data.
  40. Multi-method approaches.
  41. Social and clinical significance.
  42. Critical appraisal of qualitative research reports.
  43. Harvard system of referencing.
  44. Writing a research proposal.
  45. Writing up research.
  46. Survey research
  47. The context for research: (including quality of life), managerial and operational research, consumer satisfaction, quality assurance.
  48. Research Vs Audit.

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