Total Lecture: 100 Hrs
Exam time: 2 Hrs.
Total marks: 100
Course Work: 30
- The role of research and the relationship between research, theory and physiotherapy practice.
- The scope and applications of research.
- The process of research.
- Ethical considerations in human research.
- Quantitative research.
- The survey, descriptive and analytical.
- Prospective longitudinal and retrospective cross-section designs.
- The logic and structure of experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs.
- Aims, objectives and hypotheses. Independent and dependent variables. Null and alternative hypotheses.
- Principles of sampling, universes, populations and samples.
- Sampling strategies, probability and purposive sampling, random and stratified random sampling and quota sampling.
- Calculating sample size. Response rates and drop-out.
- External and internal validity.
- Principles of data collection – validity, sensitivity and reliability.
- Sources of bias and their reduction.
- Selection of measurement instruments. Types of data (nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio). Operational definitions, interventions and outcome measurement.
- Descriptive statistics, measures of dispersion and central tendency. The normal distribution and standard deviation. Basic display techniques (e.g. line charts, histograms, bar charts). Choosing graphical forms.
- Introduction to statistical inference; probability, p values. One and two-tailed hypothesis testing.
- Inferential statistics, statistical tests, principals of test selection.
- Tests for difference and tests for association. Related and unrelated, parametric and non-parametric.
- Errors of inference: Type Type II errors and I.
- Inputting data and generating and interpreting output from the computer.
- Performing selected statistical tests on the computer with appropriate software.
- Statistical, social and clinical significance.
- Critical appraisal of quantitative research reports.
- Generating “researchable” and relevant questions and identifying appropriate designs.
- Constraints on the choice of design. Designing and planning experimental designs.
- Qualitative research.
- Survey research: questionnaires and interviews. Principles of questionnaire design.
- Structured Vs unstructured interviews.
- Designing questionnaires and interview schedules.
- Organising and running focus groups.
- The Delphi technique.
- Other data collection instruments (e.g. diaries and other documentary sources).
- Ethnographic research. Gathering observation data, covert and overt, participant and non-participant. Constructing field notes. Gaining trust and rapport in ethnographic research.
- The design and analysis of single-system studies. Case studies.
- Basic principles of qualitative data analysis: identifying concepts, categories and themes from data.
- Qualitative data analysis, organising narrative data, content analysis. Identifying relationships. Maps and matrices.
- Computerised analysis of qualitative data.
- Multi-method approaches.
- Social and clinical significance.
- Critical appraisal of qualitative research reports.
- Harvard system of referencing.
- Writing a research proposal.
- Writing up research.
- Survey research
- The context for research: (including quality of life), managerial and operational research, consumer satisfaction, quality assurance.
- Research Vs Audit.