Total Lecture: 100 Hrs
Time: 3 Hrs.
Total marks: 150
- Introduction to human movement.
- The anatomical position.
- The planes of the body, sagital, frontal and transverse.
- The axis of movement and the movements occurring in this axis.
- Musculo-skeletal principles of movement.
- The main issues in human motor control and the causes of motion.
- Joint function.
- The close packed and loose packed position of all joints and its importance in the therapeutic setting
- The classification of synovial joints in producing movement, and the factors limiting movement in each classification.
- Joint chains and their use in measuring and recording movement and the difference between open and closed chain segments.
- Degrees of freedom.
- Practical measuring of the range of movement of various joints using a variety of methods.
- Classification of skeletal muscle and differentiate between contractile and non-contractile components.
- Roles of muscles as prime movers, agonist, antagonists, fixators and synergists and their interaction to produce purposeful movement.
- Types of muscle contraction including eccentric and concentric.
- The practical skills necessary to test length and strength of muscles.
- Basic principles of mechanics and their involvement in movement:
- The basic principles of mechanics including matter, mass, inertia, and weight.
- Centre of gravity and line of gravity and their application to patient handling..
- Force, levers and torque and their relevance to physiotherapy techniques..
- Balance and stability and the factors affecting these.
- Equilibrium – stable, unstable, neutral.
- Motion in relation to Newton’s laws of motion and its application to physiotherapy.
5. The neuromuscular basis of human motion
- The nervous system and basic nerve structures.
- The motor unit.
- Sensory receptor.
- Reflex unit.
- Volitional movement.
- Neuromuscular analysis.
6. Joint and muscular movement of fundament mental movements
The upper extremity:- Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist and Hand Region.
The lower extremity:– Hip, Knee, Ankle and Foot Region.
The Spinal and Thorax
7. Analysis of normal movement:
- The essential features of everyday movements.
- Rolling over and sitting up
- Standing from sitting
- Sitting down from standing
- Reaching and manipulation
8. Analysis of posture both normal and abnormal.
- Definition of posture
- Normal posture
- Types of posture and the essential components of standing and sitting postures.
- Systematic evaluation of posture, common postural abnormalities.
- Causes of poor or bad posture.
- Postural re education
- Definition of gait cycle
- Components of gait
- Characteristics of gait
- Gait analysis
- Abnormal pattern of gait.
- Swing to, swing through, two point and four point of gait.
- Gait re-education.
10. Motor skill acquisition.
- The basic aspects of motor skill acquisition.
- Moving objects – pushing and pulling, throwing, striking and kicking
- Locomotion – solid surface, Aquatic environment when suspended and support.
11.Lifting and handling.
- The principles of safe lifting and handling.
- Practical sessions on lifting techniques in a safe and effective manner.