This is usually congenital when it is isolated or associated with other abnormalities such as Fallot’s tetralogy but may result from rheumatic fever or from the carcinoid syndrome.
- Symptoms of right heart failure.
- Symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome.
- Giant a wave in the JVP.
- RV hypertrophy and dilatation.
- Systolic murmur (Upper left sternum).
- Systolic thrill over pulmonary outflow.
- Soft and delayed.
- Valvular SP may have an ejection click.
- Chest X-ray: prominent pulmonary artery.
- ECG: Right atrial and RV hypertrophy.
- Echo: Abnormal PV, outflow gradient on Doppler.
- Mild to moderate isolated pulmonary stenosis does not required treatment because it does not usually progress.
- Severe pulmonary stenosis (resting gradient > 50 mm hg with a normal cardiac output) is treated by-
- Percutaneous pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty, or
- Surgical pulmonary valvotomy.
- Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine, 21st edition.
- Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.