Metronidazole

metronidazole

Metronidazole is an antibiotic. It fights bacteria in our body.
Metronidazole is used to treat bacterial infections of the vagina, stomach, skin, joints, and respiratory tract. This medication will not treat a vaginal yeast infection.
Metronidazole may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Membrane of nitroimidazole group.

Oral metronidazole is absorped(80%) & permeates all tissue by simple diffusion-CSF,breast milk,liver absecess etc.

Dose:500mg 8 hourly for 5 days(For dysentery).It can also given intravenously or by rectal suppository.

Metronidazole kills the trophozoites,but not the cysts.

Mechanism of action:The drug enters the sensitive protozoa & anaerobic bacteria→ chemical reduction of nitro group the drug by ferridoxin→Reduced form of metronidazole combines with DNA→inhibits protein synthesis→killing of the organism.

What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?
Overdose symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination, numbness and tingling, or seizures (convulsions).
What should I avoid while taking metronidazole?
Do not drink alcohol while you are taking metronidazole and for at least 3 days after you stop taking it. You may have unpleasant side effects such as fast heartbeats, warmth or redness under your skin, tingly feeling, nausea, and vomiting.
Check the labels of any medicines or food products you use to make sure they do not contain alcohol.
Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking metronidazole and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Indications:

[A]Anaerobic bacterial infection:

1)      Post surgical infection.

2)      Intra-abdominal septicaemia.

3)      PUD,DUD.

4)      Endocarditis by B.fragilis.

5)      Pelvic infection.

6)      Abscess of lung & brain.

7)      Osteomyelitis.

8)      Diabetic gangrene.

[B]Protozoal infection:   

1)      Acute amoebic dysentery.

2)      Amoebic liver abscess.

3)      Amoeboma.

4)      Trichomoniasis.

5)      Giardiasis-200mg 8 hrly for 5 days.

Adverse effects:

1)      Nasuea,headache,dry mouth or a Metalic taste in the mouth occurs commonly.

2)      Infrequent adverse effects include vomiting,diarrhea,insomnia,dizziness,rash,vertigo and neutorpenia.

3)      Pancreatitis and severe central nervous system toxicity(ataxia,encephalopathy,seizures) are rare.

4)      Intravenous infusions have rarely caused seizures or peripheral neuropathy.

(Ref:Katzung-11th,P-913)

Relative contraindication:Drug can be given with caution:

1)      Pregnancy.

2)      Lactating mother.

3)      Young children.

4)      Liver insufficiency.

5)      History of blood dyscrasias.

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