Examination of urine


Routine examination of urine:

[A]Physical examination:

a) Amount:Normal urine output 800-2500 ml/day.

b) Odour:Normally pungent.

c) Color:Normally straw color due to urochrome urobilinogen.

d) Appearance:Normaly urine is clear & Transparent.

e) Specific gravity:1.010-1.020

f) Presence of sediment.

[B]Chemical examination:

a) pH:Normally urine is acidic.pH:4.8-8.Test-Litmus paper test.

b) Protien(Mainly albumin):Boiling/Heat coagulation test.

c) Sugar:Benedict test.

d) Ketone bodies:Rothera’s test.

e) Bile satl:Hay’s surface tension test.

f) Blood:Orthotolidin test.

g) Porphyrins

[C]Microscopic examination:

A.Organized deposits:

a) Cells:RBS,Pus cell,Epithelial cell.

b) Casts:Granular,Hyaline,Fatty cast,Bill cast,Hb cast,Waxy cast.

c) Bacteria

d) Mucous,animal parasites,Spermatozoa.


B.Unorganized deposits:Crystals & amorphous chemicals.

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