Erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR)

Erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR)

Definition(ESR): ESR means Erythrocytic sedimentation rate.When a column of blood mixed with a suitable anticoagulant is allowed to stand vertical ina narrow tube,the formed elements settle down leaving the clear plasma above.This rate of which this sedimentation takes place in 1st hour is called ESR.

Methods of ESR:

  1. Westergren method.
  2. Wintrobe method.


Westergren method:

  1. Male:0 to 10 mmis 1st hour.
  2. Female:0 to 20 mm is 1st hour.

Wintorbe method:

  1. Male:0 to 8 mm is 1st hour.
  2. Female:0 to 10 mm is 1st hour.

Clinical impotance:

  1. ESR has no diagnostic value.
  2. ESR is a non specific,supportive test.
  3. ESR is done to assses the prognosis of the disease.
  4. ESR is also done for the follow up of the disease after treatment.

Causes of high ESR:


  1. Vaccination.
  2. Pregnancy.
  3. Old age.
  4. High altitude.


  1. Tuberculosis.
  2. Acute Rheumatic fever.
  3. MI.
  4. SLE.
  5. Rheumatioid arthritis.
  6. Multiple myeloma.
  7. Malignancy.
  8. Sever anaemia.
  9. Collagen disease.
  10. Nehrotic synndrome.


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